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Eventually, this would indirectly adversely impact the incomes for workers, households, and expose the government to lower revenues and higher costs. The report studies the total costs that Lebanon might experience in , , and from the cumulative effects of global GHG emissions since , and the total costs from single-year emissions in each of those years.

These numbers suggest that the average cost per household would likely exceed average household annual earnings soon, which currently are about USD 12, There are several costs that might be imposed on different segments of local economy and society, such as impacts on the agriculture and various food supplies, the water supply, the rates of natural disasters, the tourism, the electricity consumption, the public health, the natural ecosystems, and the society at large. Some [ who? It is helpful to provide an intersectional approach to this discussion and understand that focusing on climate change as the issue frames the debate in terms of projections, causing the research to be speculative.

Migration as tool for climate change adaptation is projected to be a more pressing issue in the decade to come. Migration events are often seen [ by whom? These adaptation failures that have been the topic of concern for many scholars [ who? In Africa, in particular, in terms of adaptation strategies Mozambique and Zimbabwe are clear examples of this because they have implemented relocation policies that have reduced the exposure of populations and migrants to disaster.

In any case, it is important to build resilience in the long run. And for that, tools must be put in place that limit forced displacement after a disaster; promote employment programs, even if only temporary, for IDPs or establish funding plans to ensure their security; to minimize the vulnerability of populations from risk areas. This can limit the displacement caused by environmental shocks and better channel the positive spillovers money transfers, experiences, etc. The figure of the "failed migrant", in most African countries, shows extreme heterogeneity.

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The causes associated with failure are most often from social and personal natures — feelings of personal failure for example— but can also be related to social isolation in the host countries. Although there has been some progress in the discussion [88] of the causes of the pathos of failed migration, there are still many unresolved issues.

Factors such as a low social level, a change of life plan, unemployment, or even environmental stress drought, high temperature, water scarcity, etc. Insurance spreads the financial impact of flooding and other extreme weather events. Government-subsidized insurance, such as the U. National Flood Insurance Program, is criticized for providing a perverse incentive to develop properties in hazardous areas, thereby increasing overall risk.

Numerous countries, including Australia , have held inquiries into and have planned or started adaptation measures. The state of California has also issued a document titled " California Climate Adaptation Strategy Discussion Draft" that summarizes the best known science on climate change impacts in seven specific sectors and provides recommendations on how to manage against those threats. New York State is requiring climate change be taken into account in certain infrastructure permitting, zoning, and open space programs; and is mapping sea level rise along its coast.

In , a The bill should help the victims of extreme weather that was partly fueled by climate change. Many of the adjustments that have been made are primarily agricultural or related to water supply. Some of these adaptive strategies include restoration of degraded lands, rearrangement of land uses across territories, livelihood diversification, changes to sowing dates or water harvest, and even migration. Priorities are to collaborate with the Federal States of Germany in assessing the risks of climate change, identifying action areas and defining appropriate goals and measures.

In , the Federal Cabinet adopted the 'Adaptation Action Plan' [] that is accompanied by other items such as research programs, adaptation assessments and systematic observations. The film explores the way in which Bangladeshi farmers are preventing their farms from flooding by building floating gardens made of water hyacinth and bamboo. Africa will be one of the regions most impacted by the adverse effects of climate change.

Pronounced risks identified for Africa in the IPCC 's Fifth Assessment Report relate to ecosystems, water availability and agricultural systems, with implications for food security. The situation is compounded by poor reliability of, and access to, climate data and information to support adaptation actions. To reduce the impacts of climate change on African countries, adaption measures are required at multiple scales - ranging from local to national and regional levels.

At the regional level, regional policies and actions in support of adaptation across Africa are still in their infancy. Implementation has been slow however, with mixed success in delivery. At the subnational level, many provincial and municipal authorities are also developing their own strategies, for example the Western Cape Climate Change Response Strategy.

There has been considerable attention across Africa given to implementing community-based adaptation projects. There is broad agreement that support to local-level adaptation is best achieved by starting with existing local adaptive capacity, and engaging with indigenous knowledge and practices. The IPCC highlights a number of successful approaches to promote effective adaptation in Africa, outlining five common principles.

Key adaptations in northern Africa relate to increased risk of water scarcity resulting from a combination of climate change affecting water availability and increasing demand. Reduced water availability, in turn, interacts with increasing temperatures to create need for adaptation among rainfed wheat production [] [] and changing disease risk for example from leishmaniasis. Climate change is a reality in West Africa. Adaptation strategies are evident in the agriculture sector, some of which are developed or promoted by formal research or experimental stations.

The choice and adoption of adaptation strategies is variously contingent on demographic factors such as the household size, age, gender and education of the household head; economic factors such as income source; farm size; knowledge of adaptation options; and expectation of future prospects. In Eastern Africa adaptation to climate change options are varied, including improving use of climate information, actions in the agriculture and livestock sector, and in the water sector. Making better use of climate and weather data, weather forecasts, and other management tools enables timely information and preparedness of people in the sectors such as agriculture that depend on weather outcomes.


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This means mastering hydro-meteorological information and early warning systems. It has been argued that the indigenous communities possess knowledge on historical climate changes through environmental signs e. Adaptation in the agricultural sector includes increased use of manure and crop-specific fertilizer, use of resistant varieties of crops and early maturing crops. Manure, and especially animal manure is thought to retain water and have essential microbes that breakdown nutrients making them available to plants, as compared to synthetic fertilizers that have compounds which when released to the environment due to over-use contribute to the green-house gases.

One major vulnerability of the agriculture sector in Eastern Africa is the dependence on rain-fed agriculture. An adaptation solution is adoption of efficient irrigation mechanisms and efficient water storage and use. Drip irrigation has especially been identified as a water efficient option as it directs the water to the root of the plant with minimal wastage. Countries like Rwanda and Kenya, have prioritized developing irrigated areas by gravity water systems from perennial streams and rivers in zones often vulnerable to prolonged droughts.

Adaptation strategies proposed for this is promoting conservation efforts on land protection, by planting indigenous trees, protecting water catchment areas and managing grazing lands through zoning. For the livestock sector, adaptation options include managing production through sustainable land and pasture management in the ecosystems.

This includes promoting hay and fodder production methods e. Keeping livestock is considered a livelihood rather than an economic activity. Throughout Eastern Africa Countries especially in the ASALs regions, it is argued that promoting commercialization of livestock, is an adaptation option. In the water sector , the adaptation options are both for efficient use of water for household, animals and industrial consumption and protection of water sources. Campaigns such as planting indigenous trees in water catchment areas, controlling human activities near catchment areas especially farming and settlement have been carried out to help protect water resources and avail access to water for communities especially during climatic shocks.

Policies have been identified as important tools for integrating issues of climate change adaptation. These are at different levels of development in different countries. Regional - Some progress is being made in responding to climate change at the regional level. This includes the development and adoption of several regional climate change adaptation strategies [] e. Comoros - "NAPA is the operational extension of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper PRSP , as it includes among its adaptation priorities, agriculture, fishing, water, housing, health, but also tourism, in an indirect way, through the reconstitution of basin slopes and the fight against soils erosion, and therefore the protection of reefs by limiting the silting up by terrigen contributions.

Drought, Wildfire, Storms: Extreme Weather is on The Increase - Doc Zone

Kenya gazetted the Climate Change Act, which establishes an authority to oversee development, management, implementation and regulation of mechanisms to enhance climate change resilience and low carbon development for sustainable development, by the National and County Governments, the private sector, civil society and other actors. Kenya has also developed the National Climate Change Action Plan NCCAP which aims to further the country's development goals by providing mechanisms and measures to achieve low carbon climate resilient development in a manner that prioritizes adaptation.

Madagascar - the priority sectors for adaptation are: agriculture and livestock, forestry, public health, water resources and coastal zones. Mauritius - adaptation should address the following priority areas: coastal resources, agriculture, water resources, fisheries, health and well-being, land use change and forestry and biodiversity. Mozambique - "The proposed adaptation initiatives target various areas of economic and social development, and outline projects related to the reduction of impacts to natural disasters, the creation of adaptation measures to climate change, fight against soil erosion in areas of high desertification and coastal zones, reforestation and the management of water resources.

Rwanda has developed the National Adaptation Programme of Action NAPA which contains information to guide national policy-makers and planners on priority vulnerabilities and adaptations in important economic sectors. South Africa is in the progress of finalising its national climate change adaptation strategy. Tanzania Tanzania has outlined priority adaptation measures in their NAPA, and various national sector strategies and research outputs. Zambia - "The NAPA identifies 39 urgent adaptation needs and 10 priority areas within the sectors of agriculture and food security livestock, fisheries and crops , energy and water, human health, natural resources and wildlife [] ".

Zimbabwe - "The other strategic interventions by the NAP process will be: Strengthening the role of private sector in adaptation planning, Enhancing of the capacity of Government to develop bankable projects through trainings, Improving management of background climate information to inform climate change planning, Crafting a proactive resource-mobilization strategy for identifying and applying for international climate finance as requests for funds are primarily reactive at present, focusing on emergency relief rather than climate change risk reduction, preparedness and adaptation, Developing a coordinated monitoring and evaluation policy for programs and projects, as many institutions within the government do not currently have a systematic approach to monitoring and evaluation.

IPCC Working Group II, [29] the United States National Academy of Sciences , [] the United Nations Disaster Risk Reduction Office, [] and other science policy experts [] agree that while mitigating the emission of greenhouse gases is important, adaptation to the effects of global warming will still be necessary. Some, like the UK Institution of Mechanical Engineers , worry that mitigation efforts will largely fail. Given that greenhouse gas levels are already elevated, the lag of decades between emissions and some impacts, and the significant economic and political challenges of success, the IPCC group points out that it is uncertain how much climate change will be mitigated.

Developing countries are the least able to adapt to climate change. Doing so depends on such factors as wealth, technology, education, infrastructure, access to resources, management capabilities, acceptance of the existence of climate change and the consequent need for action, and sociopolitical will. By , however, it was still judged likely that there would be significant climate change impacts. This was judged to be the case even with aggressive mitigation and significantly enhanced adaptive capacity.

The IPCC group also pointed out that climate change adaptation measures can reinforce and be reinforced by efforts to promote sustainable development and reduce poverty. Adaptation and mitigation can be viewed as two competing policy responses, with tradeoffs between the two. The other tradeoff is with climate change impacts. In practice, however, the actual tradeoffs are debatable. Economists , using cost-benefit analysis , have attempted to calculate an "optimal" balance of the costs and benefits between climate change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation.

Also, deciding what "optimal" is depends on value judgements made by the economist doing the study Azar, Some reviews indicate that policymakers are uncomfortable with using the results of this type of economic analysis. Another type of analysis is based on a risk -based approach to the problem. It has been argued that adaptation could play an important role in climate policy , but not in an explicit trade-off against mitigation. Various attempts have been made to estimate the cost of adaptation to climate change.

However, this estimate was criticised as underestimating costs of adaptation by a factor of 2 or 3, particularly as it did not take into account sectors such as tourism, mining, energy and retail. The benefits of strong, early action on mitigation considerably outweigh the costs. According to Al Gore , writing in in Earth in the Balance , [] adaptation represented a "kind of laziness, an arrogant faith in our ability to react in time to save our skins". But for every day mitigation is delayed, the need for adaptation grows," which is problematic because "adaptation is more expensive and requires bigger government than mitigation.

The are some measure that seems like adaptation, but can lead, in fact, to more climate sensitivity and more climate change. For example, reliance on air conditioning gives relief from the heat, but can create an addiction to it, e. According to a report [] released by Greenpeace USA in September , climate change denial and the campaigns designed to block adaptation measures grew mainly out of the s negotiations slated to develop a global agreement.

During these talks, a number of lobby groups were established with an objective of developing doubt within policymakers and the media through the use of publications in the guise of true science. This tactic, similar to those of large tobacco companies, was utilized by the lobby groups in the hopes of delaying action and blurring the lines between the valid scientific efforts to challenge climate change findings and those designed to merely undermine the credibility of the scientific community.

This strategy feeds into the "uncertainty argument" and develops an impression of debate through references to the uncertainty of scientific findings that exist in any research model. Additional tactics that the lobbyist groups have used include releasing non-stories manufactured from stolen emails and communications plans to develop more media coverage of the uncertainty argument.

A book by the Berliner Wissenschafts-Verlag on 'conflict-sensitive adaptation' sheds light on unintended damaging effects of climate adaptation measures. The book draws on findings from Africa and outlines how conflict-sensitive adaptation activities should look that are cognizant of the conflict-effects adaptation may have. The authors provide a "Memorandum for Action on Adaptation for Peace and Stability" that outlines principles to support processes for adaptation and peace such as the establishment of peace and conflict assessments for adaptation programmes, mainstreaming climate change adaptation in conflict-prone contexts, applying conflict sensitive approaches or provisions to ensure participatory processes to design and implement adaptation measures.

Several countries have taken a lead in climate vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning. Their web sites contain reports, strategies, and tools which other countries can customize to their own situation. In addition to government and United Nations reports, an extensive research literature assesses options for response to global warming.

Much of this literature addresses the potential economic costs associated with different strategies. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. August Main article: Effects of global warming. This article may be too long to read and navigate comfortably. Please consider splitting content into sub-articles, condensing it, or adding subheadings.

Main articles: Climate engineering and Solar radiation management. Main article: Climate change adaptation in Nepal. Global warming portal Renewable Energy portal. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climatic Change. Semenov, A. Patwardhan, I. Burton, C. Magadza, M. Oppenheimer, A.

Life on the Edge: Vulnerability and Adaptation of African Ecosystems to Global Climate Change

Pittock, A. Rahman, J. Smith, A. Suarez and F. Yamin Executive summary. Parry, O. Canziani, J. Palutikof, P. Hanson, Eds. This version: IPCC website. Archived from the original on 2 May Retrieved 6 April Adaptation and mitigation options. In book section : Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change Synthesis Report. K and Reisinger, A. Many of the impacts of climate change can be felt far beyond the locations in which they originally occur and create conflicts and competition for resources.

The core concern is succinctly stated: Climate change endangers health in fundamental ways. The warming of the planet will be gradual, but the effects of extreme weather events — more storms, floods, droughts and heatwaves — will be abrupt and acutely felt. Both trends can affect some of the most fundamental determinants of health: air, water, food, shelter, and freedom from disease. This brochure presents six paintings, produced by the Italian painter Elisabetta Farina and commissioned by WHO are linked to a broader initiative named Art for Health aimed at using art work to support awareness-raising about the health consequences of climate change.

It underlines the global impact making use of images of women from different regions speaking the six World Health Organization WHO official languages. It stresses the common agenda while underlining diversity of vulnerability. It points out that women are one of the groups vulnerable to the health consequences of climate change while recognizing their role as actors of change. The collection is part of a suite of other products and initiatives developed for a global advocacy and outreach campaign. Data on the present and expected impacts of climate change on health are provided alongside the different subjects and languages.

Global climate change: implications for international health policy. This is an article from WHO staff on global climate change and the various implications for international public health policy. EuroHEAT, a project co-funded by the European Commission Directorate-General for Health and Consumers, aimed to improve public health responses to weather extremes and to heat-waves in particular. Climate change is projected to lead to an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, including heat-waves.

Long and intense heat-waves have the most severe health effects. There is growing evidence from EuroHEAT that the effects of heat-wave days on mortality are greater, particularly among the elderly, when levels of ozone or particulate matter are high. A wide range of chronic diseases and medical treatments, social isolation and some types of occupation increase the risk of heat stress in individuals.

In European cities, the elderly suffer the greatest effects of heat-waves. Across Europe, housing and socioeconomic conditions showed varying influence on the impacts of heat on health. On the basis of the results generated by the EuroHEAT project, two tools for public health interventions were developed: the web-based climate information support tool and the guidance for heat—health action plans.

Climate change impacts and adaptation

This document summarizes the overall project results. Collectively and individually our organizations are available to assist parties in their endeavour to make informed decisions. Climate sensitive risk factors and illnesses are currently among the most important contributors to the global burden of disease; these include undernutrition estimated to kill 3. These and other health outcomes will be increasingly affected by accelerating climate change, through its adverse effects on food production and food security, water availability and the population dynamics of vectors and pathogens.

Download [pdf, 46kb]. The health and humanitarian dimensions of climate change are among the ultimate justifications for taking action on climate change and these are closely interlinked. Humanitarian assistance provides a strong health imperative to save lives and alleviate the suffering of crisis affected populations. Climate change mitigation and adaptation, in particular, are important for the protection of health of vulnerable populations from both sudden and slow onset climate-related emergencies.

The aim of the paper is twofold: first, it documents the range of risks that climate change poses to human health associated with humanitarian emergencies, and secondly, it proposes policy directions to manage the health humanitarian impact of climate change for consideration by the 15th Conference of the Parties COP to the UNFCCC, the health sector and by the humanitarian community. Environmental Resources Management Southern Africa Pty Ltd ERM was commissioned to support the World Health Organization WHO in the development of a global framework to facilitate the reduction of the carbon footprint and total environmental impact of its offices and operations globally.

This study covers carbon emissions that arise due to activities under the direct operational control of WHO. Climate change and health. Report by the secretariat. Climate change will affect, in profoundly adverse ways, some of the most fundamental determinants of health: food, air and water. The warming of the planet will be gradual, but the increasing frequency and severity of extreme weather events, such as intense storms, heat waves, droughts and floods, will be abrupt and the consequences will be acutely felt.

The earliest and most severe threats are to developing countries, with negative implications for the achievement of the health-related Millennium Development Goals and for health equity. It is therefore essential to formulate a clear response in order to protect human health and ensure that it is placed at the centre of the climate debate. How is climate change affecting our health: manual for students and their families.

Climate change is often associated with ecosystem destruction and disappearing species. This is all true, but climate change affects our lives in a more direct way: our health. The fact that human-made changes in climate affect human health, in an indirect or direct way, needs to be disseminated among our communities, particularly among the youth who hold in their hands the power to change the future. This manual is an attempt to sensitize growing adults about the importance of the linkages between climate change and human health.

The students will learn the reasons behind the changes going on, how they affect each one of us in one way or other, the current and future effects and how we can respond to them. The complete resource material consists of two manuals: one for teachers and one for students.

How is climate change affecting our health: manual for teachers. Protecting health in Europe from climate change. There is now scientific consensus that climate change affects health through changing weather patterns for example, more intense and frequent extreme events and indirectly through changes in water, air, food quality and quantity, ecosystems, agriculture, livelihoods and infrastructure. Climate change can also pose a threat to health security. Failure to respond could be very costly in terms of disease, health care expenditure and lost productivity. This publication intends to stimulate debate and support an active response by providing up-to-date information on the health effects of climate change, as well as practical guidance on specific actions that decision-makers at different levels in health and other sectors can take now.

As long as climate change is not too rapid or strong, many of the health effects can be controlled by strengthening health systems. This can include strengthening preparedness, public health services and health security, advocating action in other sectors to benefit health, better informing citizens and leading by example.

Health systems need to strengthen their capacity to assess potential climate-related health effects, to review their capacities to cope, and develop and implement adaptation and mitigation strategies, and to strengthen a range of key areas of work — from disease surveillance and control to disaster risk reduction — that are essential for rapid detection of and action against climate-related risks. The health impacts of climate change in Asia-Pacific. Climate change threatens human health. Women are "the most vulnerable to climate change" and its negative health consequences in developing countries.

It is estimated that the mortality risk of women during disasters is 14 times higher than that of men. Poor women, who constitute the majority of the poor in the Asia-Pacific region, are particularly vulnerable to climatesensitive health risks. This paper explores available data on the observed and projected linkages between climate change and health in the Asia-Pacific region.

It highlights key health risks and vulnerabilities due to climate change and extreme climatic events, including infectious diseases, injuries, and other morbidities. Particular health vulnerabilities of women and girls to climate change impacts, along with other vulnerable populations, are also examined. Climate change and developing country cities: implications for environmental health and equity.

Climate change is an emerging threat to global public health. It is also highly inequitable, as the greatest risks are to the poorest populations, who have contributed least to greenhouse gas GHG emissions. The rapid economic development and the concurrent urbanization of poorer countries mean that developing-country cities will be both vulnerable to health hazards from climate change and, simultaneously, an increasing contributor to the problem.

We review the specific health vulnerabilities of urban populations in developing countries and highlight the range of large direct health effects of energy policies that are concentrated in urban areas. Common vulnerability factors include coastal location, exposure to the urban heat-island effect, high levels of outdoor and indoor air pollution, high population density, and poor sanitation. There are clear opportunities for simultaneously improving health and cutting GHG emissions most obviously through policies related to transport systems, urban planning, building regulations and household energy supply.

These influence some of the largest current global health burdens, including approximately , annual deaths from ambient urban air pollution, 1. GHG emissions and health protection in developing-country cities are likely to become increasingly prominent in policy development. There is a need for a more active input from the health sector to ensure that development and health policies contribute to a preventive approach to local and global environmental sustainability, urban population health, and health equity.

Environment and health risks from climate change and variability in Italy. This report is one of the results of that project. Climate change is already having an effect in Italy, as elsewhere. The global effects of an increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are reflected in the growing number of extreme weather events, such as heat-waves and intense rainfall. These have various consequences for the health of a population, both directly in terms of mortality and morbidity, and indirectly through changes in the ecosystem.

As there has been, as yet, no systematic national climate change impact assessment in Italy, this report is a preliminary evaluation of the situation, using international and national literature and with the help of expert advice. The aim is to assess the potential risks of climate change to human health in Italy, to see what adaptive and preventive measures are available and to suggest what may be additionally needed.

Environmental change and infectious diseases. The aim of the meeting was to review evidence related to the implications of global climate and ecological change on the communicable disease burden of Europe, assess the preparedness of health systems, develop scientific advice, identify research needs, and make recommendations to Member States. Heat waves, floods and the health impacts of climate change.

A prototype training workshop for city health officials. This training package, which targets city officials as its primary users, aims to help develop competencies in these three areas. It contains reading materials, as well as a guide for study. The package is designed to accompany a workshop, but it can also be used for self-paced learning in a less structured setting.


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  • After going through this training programme, the learner will be able to develop action plans at the city level to address the health impacts of climate change. The learner will also be able to draft resolutions that city councils and leaders can adopt in support of these actions. National climate change and health workshop report — Bangladesh. The workshop was attended by representatives from various organizations working on climate change and public health issues and academicians. National climate change and health workshop report — Indonesia. National climate change and health workshop report — Nepal.

    Sixty-five representatives of Health, Environment, Meteorology, Water Supply, Agriculture and academic institutions participated in a consultation workshop to debate the effects that climate change may have on health in Nepal. The workshop was organized by the Nepal Health Research Council and financially supported by WHO as part of its efforts to raise the capacity of member-states in this technical area. Presentations were made by all sectors involved. It was clear that a lot of work has already been done in Nepal to determine the consequences of Climate Change on health.

    Download [pdf, 28kb]. This discussion paper examines recent threats to health security in the WHO European Region from communicable diseases, natural disasters, large-scale accidents, conflicts and complex emergencies and the potential future challenges from climate change. It reviews the lessons learned from past experience, the new framework offered by the revised International Health Regulations , the need for strengthening health systems to manage crises and the importance of international partnerships for health security.

    Climate change and adaptation strategies for human health.

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    The flood events in and the heat wave of August in Europe had given evidence in a rather drastic way of our vulnerability and our non preparedness. The project has produced very important results that show that the concurrent work of different disciplines in addressing public health issues can produce innovative and useful results, providing an approach that can be followed on other public health issues. The project has shown that information on potential threats can be extremely useful in preparing the public for adverse events as well as facilitating the response when the events occur. This is a new dimension for public health which reverses the traditional thinking: from identifying and reducing specific risk factors, to taking action on the basis of prediction and early warning to prevent health consequences in large populations.

    Lyme borreliosis in Europe: influences of climate and climate change, epidemiology, ecology and adaptation measures. This publication reviews the impacts of climate change on Lyme borreliosis in Europe. Although it is treatable with antibiotics, it is the most common vector-borne disease in the Region and may lead to severe complications of the neurological system, the heart, and the joints. It is caused by a spirochete, which is transmitted to humans by ticks whose reservoir animals are small rodents, insectivores, hares and birds.

    Ticks are highly sensitive to changes in seasonal climate. Since the s, tick vectors have increased in density and spread into higher latitudes and altitudes in Europe. Future climate change in Europe is therefore likely to facilitate the spread of Lyme borreliosis in the same way, while reducing its occurrence in areas that become hotter and drier. To counteract this threat, preventive measures such as information for the general public, surveillance activities and standardized methods of collecting data all need to be strengthened.

    Climate variability and change and their health effects in small island states: information for adaptation planning in the health sector. Small island states are the countries likely to be most vulnerable to climate variability and long-term climate change, particularly extreme weather and climate events such as cyclones, floods and droughts and sea-level rise. Many small island states share characteristics that increase their vulnerability, these include their small sizes, isolation, limited fresh water and other natural resources, fragile economies, often dense populations, poorly developed infrastructures and limited financial and human resources.

    Ecosystems and human well-being: a health synthesis. This report synthesizes the findings from the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment's MA global and sub-global assessments of how ecosystem changes do, or could, affect human health and well-being.

    UNCTAD | Climate Change and Maritime Transport

    All the MA authors and review editors have contributed to this report through their contributions to the underlying assessment chapters on which this text is based. Extreme weather events and public health responses. Recent catastrophic heat waves and floods raise the question: are extreme weather events becoming more frequent?

    And if so, what should be done about them? This book presents a collection of case studies and experiences of experts, ministries and international organizations, on such topics as: will climate change alter climate variability? It also makes recommendations on public health and environmental responses to weather and climate extremes. Health and climate change: the now and how. A policy action guide. Current climate trends point to the likelihood that southern Europe will become drier in the future, while northern Europe is likely to become warmer and wetter.

    Extreme events are expected to increase in frequency and severity, particularly heat-waves, droughts and intense rainfall events. These measures are classified into general and specific. General measures include better cooperation between health and climate institutions, building capacity for action now and communication.

    The specific measures include information for the prevention of health effects from heat stress, floods, vector, rodent and food borne diseases. Global climate change.

    Key trends

    Chapter in Ezzati et al, Comparative quantification of health risks. The Comparative quantification of health risks provides a comprehensive assessment of the prevalence and the resulting health effects of a range of exposures that are known to be hazardous to human health. This two-volume book describes the burden of regional and global disease, disability and death in that can be attributed to 26 major risks to human health. It also shows how much this burden can be lowered in the next 20 years if the same risk factors were reduced.

    High air temperatures can affect human health and lead to additional deaths even under current climatic conditions. Heat waves occur infrequently in Europe and can significantly affect human health, as witnessed in summer This report reviews the current knowledge about the effects of heat-waves, including the physiological aspects of heat illness and epidemiological studies on excess mortality, and makes recommendations for preventive action.

    Measures for reducing heat-related mortality and morbidity include heat health-warning systems and appropriate urban planning and housing design. Synthesis workshop on climate variability, climate change and health in small island states, Bandos Island Resort, Maldives. Specific goals of the Synthesis Workshop included: to inform health scientists, practitioners, and officials of the impacts of climate variability, and long-term climate change in the Indian Ocean, Pacific, Caribbean and other regions; to address vulnerability assessment and adaptation options for Small Island Countries; to address findings and proposed actions as discussed in previous workshops in the Pacific and the Caribbean, with regard to: integration of health-relevant sectors e.

    Summarize conclusions and recommendations for common actions and activities for Small Island States and vulnerable islands in general. Climate change and human health: impact and adaptation.